Hittinger, R. Social pluralism and subsidiarity in Catholic social doctrine. Annales Theologici, 16, — The coherence of the four basic principles of catholic social doctrine: An interpretation. Donati Eds. Vatican City: Vatican Press. Hursthouse, R. On virtue ethics. Oxford: OUP Oxford. Measures of equitable and sustainable well-being. Kahneman, D. Toward national well-being accounts. The American Economic Review, 94 2 , — Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, — Choices, values and frames. Kelly, J. Journal of Business Ethics, 52 3 , — Keynes, J. The scope and method of political economy 3a Edn.
London: Macmillan. Le Grand, J. Quasi-markets and social policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press. Leo XIII. Rerum novarum. MacIntyre, A. After virtue. Manzalini, F. Elementi di economia politica in Giuseppe Toniolo. Siena: Cantagalli. Martini, G. Millon-Delsol, C. Paris: PUF. Vittadini Eds. Superare la crisi senza sacrificare nessuno pp. Milan: BUR. Molesti, R. Milan: FrancoAngeli. Moreno, L. Europeanization, Territorial Subsidiarity and Welfare Reform. Regional and Federal Studies, 17 4 , — Morris, C. Amartya Sen.
Negri Zamagni, V. Santomiero Eds. Mian: RCS. Nello, P. Milan: RCS. Ostrom, E. Governing the commons. Pantaleoni, M. Pecorari, P. Ketteler e Toniolo: Tipologie sociali del movimento cattolico in Europa. Ethics and economics in Giuseppe Toniolo. Gaburro Ed. Pius XI. Quadragesimo anno. Vatican City. Pollard, J. Catholicism in modern Italy: Religion, society and politics since Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace.
Compendium of the social doctrine of the church. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Putnam, R. Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Romani, M. Sacco, P. The economics of human relationships. Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, 1, — An evolutionary dynamic approach to altruism. Farina, F. Vannucci Eds. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Provision of social services: Civil economy, cultural evolution and participatory development. Mwabu, C. White Eds.
Sachs, J. The price of civilization.
New York: Random House. Restoring virtue ethics in the quest for happiness. Helliwell, R. Sachs, chapter 5. Salimbeni, F. Giuseppe Toniolo e la cultura del suo tempo. Per un bilancio storiografico. Pecorari Ed. Sen, A. On ethics and economics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Shafer-Landau, R. Ethical theory: An anthology 2nd ed.
New York: Wiley. Simon, H. Reason in human affairs. Chicago: Stanford University Press. Sinnott-Armstrong, W. Spicciani, A. Giuseppe Toniolo, un economista storico. In Various authors , Contributi alla conoscenza del pensiero di Giuseppe Toniolo pp. Pisa: Pacini Editore. Agli inizi della storiografia medioevistica in Italia. Rome: Jouvence. Toniolo, G. In Opera omnia di Giuseppe Toniolo , s. Il credito di beneficenza presso le banche mutue popolari. Lettera al comm. Luigi Luzzatti. Dei remoti fattori della potenza economica di Firenze nel Medio Evo. Considerazioni sociali economiche , Hoepli, Milan.
Criteri scientifici etico-economici intorno al credito dal punto di vista cristiano. Problemi, discussioni, proposte intorno alla costituzione corporativa delle classi lavoratrici a proposito di recenti convegni sociali. Trattato di economia sociale. Democrazia cristiana. II, p. Van Parijs, P. No Eurozone without euro-dividend. In 14th Congress of the basic income earth network, Munich.
Linazasoro, J. Narne, E. Abitare intorno a un vuoto Marsilio Editore, Venezia. Norberg-Schulz, C. Paesaggio ambiente architettura Electa Editrice, Milano.
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Zucchi, C. The reconstruction of Place Alphonse Fiquet in Amiens does not therefore result in the revival of a particular image of the city of Picardy, as in the invention of forms that manifest a link and a belonging to a wider cultural world, which is that of the northern French cities. So this is the reason that explains the founding choice, in the project for the square, to place a beffroi where it had never been, as if it had always been there, and to coherently and historically rethink the urban form within the relationship between the civic tower and the Gothic cathedral.
Gargiani, R. Teoria e Opere Electa, Milano. Kopp, A. Lucan, J. Abram, J. The relation between architecture and place mapping has not yet been fully developed by researches on oral history. Mapping is a powerful tool to represent and describe a place; however it often lacks a diachronic dimension that can provide an insight into the dynamics of transformative processes. In order to overcome this issue, we propose the inclusion of a diachronic linguistic dimension in the mapping process.
Artisan Village , located in Modena Italy. The archive contains materials from the last 50 years, including newspaper articles, official documents, as well as transcriptions of interviews to the inhabitants of the Villaggio Artigiano. Through corpus and cognitive linguistics methods and theories, we investigate the language features that characterize the area; in particular we focus on identifying how the Villaggio Artigiano has been represented and narrated throughout the years by its inhabitants, the media, and the historiographic community.
The results are then used to analyse the relations between the language of the community and the places in a diachronic dimension, and allow for a graphical mapping of the network that the archive outlines. References Baker P.
The Principle of Subsidiarity and the Ethical Factor in Giuseppe Toniolo’s Thought
Bianchetti, C. Cervellati P. Comune di Modena , I villaggi artigiani, Nuovagrafica, Modena. Kropf K. Lynch, K. Manni G. Marzot, N. Montedoro L. Modelli e frammenti — Urbanistica e architettura a Modena , rfm edizioni, Modena. Moretti M. Ruggeri R. Salsi L. Agostino, 37, Genova, Italia luigi. Keywords: Threshold, density, interface, mega-structure, landscape The urban framework experiences a permanent face-off with transformation and evolution processes, both inside and outside it, and also on the thresholds. The connections toward a more territorial frame, such as the network of infrastructures are more evident at this stage because of a lower density.
The visible interfaces within the city boundaries, as a sort of urban gates, are not only infrastructures, but also large industrial complexes. Beyond every single case, with its own characteristics, all these situations concern huge artifacts in which architectural qualities are also recognized.
Following my present PhD research path on the scientific mega-structures and their role inside the architectural practice, I will explicit how they could be an efficient device as a provocative case of study to struggle the citys capacity to menage its thresholds. The relation with both the city, on one side, and the nature on the other but also within more complex area in which these two entities are not so distinct can be studied in a register of different scales: from the architectonic level of a laboratory building to the landscape of an antenna, 3 kilometers long, for gravitational wave.
It is not just a matter of discussing the placement of these structures, but also how their strong symbolic meaning can be managed and absorbed by the city. References Agamben, G. Louis Romano, M. The role of urban analysis in the requalification of schools in historical centers, the case of Via Giulia. Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy aya. Mohanna uniroma1. The research involves the Piazza Della Moretta zone, specifically the Virgilio High school adjacent to the Via Giulia street in the historical center of Rome as a subject of urban regeneration.
The interest in this area arises for the existence of the void, amidst a continuity of consolidated urban fabric, that remains an evidence of the rejection towards the demolitions of the s. The general scope is to identify a certain grammar of the urban form, that will further explain how the formative principles have determined the city as we know it, and that describes the value of the relations between the historical and contemporary spaces. The approach that combines tools of morphological analysis with readings of the historical archives, is meant to clarify the way the heritage is reflected in the project of the city.
The designated fabric is rooted to the expansion axes of the Claudio-Nerone era that are projected from Campo Marzio. Subsequently, Via Giulia became the manifestation of many modifications and witnessed the complex constitutive process of the city. Departing from a base of critical reading of the process, the aim is to re-stitch the fabric recomposing the forms and the significance of the places. Thus, the design strategies of the Virgilio school will be defined following the new national guidelines for educational systems.
Therefore, its imperative to rethink spaces that would offer flexible, multifunctional, and modular solutions; that will in turn satisfy both educational and urban needs hence becoming the civic center that would give way to a local cultural development. References Pratesi, L. Alinea Editrice. Capanna, A. Edifici per la scuola. Campagnoli, G. Franco Angeli, Milano. Caniggia, G. Keywords: Complexity, emergent properties, urban simulation Emerging properties are an unavoidable reality when we examine systems composed of a large number of interacting entities that demonstrate complex behaviors.
The theory and science of systems can be considered a new scientific paradigm that not only offers tools for reading the reality, but also demonstrates a strong operative component replacing the analytical approach in at least four research fields such as: Cybernetics, where the information exchanged between the system and the environment generates continuous feedback; the Information Theory according to which information and order are uniquely linked in complex systems; Cellular Automata, entities capable of processing information by simulating complex processes; The Game Theory according to which the conflict and the collaboration between rational agents is able to bring out behaviors of higher order and greater complexity.
The paper tries to investigate the repercussions that the emergent properties with the related tools of complexity management have on the reading of reality and on architectural and urban design. Through the simulation of complexity we can investigate not only the problems of morphological nature but social and cultural phenomena can be seen as emerging properties of contemporary urbanity.
References Batty, M. Bertalanffy, L. New York: George Braziller. Di Raimo, A. Roma: Edilstampa. Hensel, M. Emergence in Architecture. Portugali, J. Complexity theory as a link between space and place. Environment and Planning A , pp. Saggio, A. Introduzione alla rivoluzione informatica in architettura. Roma: Carocci. As such, the territorial, daily mobility of the poorer, who generally live in the worst regions, is fundamental to the ideal of sharing the city on a more equal basis.
But mobility is not enough. The porosity of the city, i. Their possibilites of travelling within the city, of being welcome everywhere and their need to be in the wealthier parts of the city will shape not only their personal success but the city morphology — be it to increase or diminish its porosity. This essay tries to picture the main aspects involved in building a more porous and mobile city for all, and wonders what that would mean to the evolving mechanisms and the more or less hierarchical structures of the urban form. References Kaufmann, Vincent Retour sur la ville. Secchi, Bernardo Soja, Edward Keywords: Tirana, public city, urban renewal This analysis attempts to highlight some problems and opportunities for urban renewal of the city of Tirana.
The capital of Albania is currently in a constant and vibrant process of transforming its territory. This strong transformation has marginalized various parts of the city. They are compact monotonous and chaotic parts, and in most cases they are a product of mismanagement or informality of the last transition years. These large organic areas of the city should be accompanied by studies or critical analyzes to reclaim them in many layers.
Urban regeneration policies should not only be considered in infrastructure and integral restoration of the facades of buildings, but in a much wider and longer spatial, social, and economic action in these areas. Research will try to rank a series of points already successfully addressed in various European cities. Problems of developments after the s in Europe can be resurfaced with the same interest in different plans on urban textures of Tirana. Foreseeing the advantages on making use of works on the perceptions and uses of space, Portas promoted, for more than a decade, studies regarding territory and urban morphology in the first Portuguese Public Research Center dedicated to Architecture, the Construction and Housing Division , later renamed Architecture Division , were he directed a research team.
References Larkham, P. J and Jones, A. Marat-Mendes, T. Pereira, M. Portas, N. Keywords: fragmentation, borders, intercultural, hybrid, urban fracture, social hierarchy, enclaves, splintering urbanism This research studies the inter-cultural urban aspect often seen on the level of big cities worldwide. It presents the main characteristics that dominate the phenomenon of diasporaruled neighborhoods in international cities. The issue of globalization and the momentum caused by the flux of people in the recent century due to mega migration waves has shaped the metropolis in a new and intriguing way.
Cities like Beirut, New York, Berlin, London and Paris have all been an epitome for the study of diaspora movements and their effect on the urban scene. The general scope of this paper is to study some of these cases and attempt to identify a certain parameter of shared characteristics belonging to each group of zones based on culture and history, in order to arrive to an understanding of what triggers these forms.
It studies the nature of boundaries, ranging from massive fences to a seamless transition through a street. It also explores the possibility for a hybrid style or identity caused by the interlock of cultures on an architectural level. The approach combines a set of tools by morphologically reading the gradient or abrupt transition between the local urbanization and that of the sub-community. This should be done by thoroughly examining and collecting the data necessary for such a study. Then, following an objective read into the provided data, the aim will be to try to mend the fracture between the different realms and to collect a group of projects that previously targeted the issue of intercultural urban fractures.
Last, a preliminary project will attempt to re-stitch two hostile realms in one of the case studies based on the set of characteristics obtained following the study of a more successful case. As a general goal, this study aims to spread awareness towards migration movements and their subjects. It also invites the reader to rethink the city in an innovative way as a collective canvas affected by many aspects for its inhabitants rather than a systemized space defining life.
References Crissman, L. The segmentary structure of urban overseas Chinese communities. Man, 2 2 , Amini, A. The impact of social segregation on human mobility in developing and industrialized regions. EPJ Data Science, 3 1 , 6. Jargowsky, P. Poverty and place: Ghettos, barrios, and the American city. Russell Sage Foundation. Walks, R. Racial segregation, ethnic enclaves and poverty concentration in Canadian urban areas.
Smith, M. Transnational urbanism revisited. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31 2 , Iossifova, D. Borderland urbanism: seeing between enclaves. Urban Geography, 36 1 , Logan, J. Immigrant enclaves and ethnic communities in New York and Los Angeles. American sociological review, Diagonal, We will present our own theoretical and practical view points, based upon a sociophysical dimension of architectural design following architectural and planning ideas by Spiro Kostoff, Alberto Magnaghi, Mikhail Bakhtin, Paul Ricoeur, Bill Hillier, Rainer E.
Zimmermann, and others, in the sense that, in between the design poetic prefigurative act, the morphological configurative studies of cities and the anthropological refigurative surveys of the users, specific emergent powers develop in the making of the cities, in a socio-physical and space-time structural chronotopic manner. Instate of a confrontation in between the prefigurative poetic views of architects and planners with the configurative outputs of the morphological studies or with the refigurative analyses of the social behavioral and cognitive social sciences, their dialogical interplays will help the three different spatial view points to observe the city as a common study case.
We will analyze some Iranian cities Kermanshah and some Spanish cities Barcelona that have been studied in recent PhD dissertations in architecture or that they are now investigated in this way. This chronotopic and dialogical holistic perspective opens new ways to a more refined human engagement, where the local to global confrontations can achieve in a positive emergence not always predicted, neither by the morphological studies nor by the ethnometodological social survey.
References Hillier, B. Kostof, S. Croce , , Venezia, Italy irene. Keywords: Urban morphogenesis, urban growth, morphology, stochastic models, Alan Turing Morphogenetic theories that deal with dynamic systems seem adequate to describe cities as living organisms in constant transformation. Moreover, they are not limited to this: they can be regarded as multidisciplinary models connected to both nature and artefacts.
Yet, the same mechanism can illustrate the emergence of pigmentation patterns in animals, the formation of sand dunes, various forms of aggregation in nature, but it has also become relevant in morphogenetic design and urban studies. In all these examples, even small variations in the concentration of given elements or in the parameters of an algorithm can lead to different kinds of stochastic equilibrium, thus to a wide range of shapes evolving through time. Thus, far from a hylomorphic point of view, these models consider form as the result of the action of forces emerging from the matter itself and, instead of providing deterministic predictions, they are useful as qualitative explanation tools for both natural processes and urban development.
References Allen, Peter M. Geographical Analysis 11 3 : — Pumain, Denise. Turing, Alan Mathison. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences : 37— The research period selected for this study is a very interesting and complex era of world history: the study of the towns not only explores the urban types but also discovers the new urban conditions created within the settlements.
It points out the not just territorial unity-creating nature, indirectly refers to the appearance of urban forms, signifies the dominant urban development forces via urban tissue types. The urban tissue typology and urban taxonomy took into account the 70 towns selected carefully for the research to cover the entire territory of the historic Hungary , showing wide range of geomorphological and hydrological character, high variety of evolution intensity and level of territorial development, to show and prove the possibility of urban typology creation based on coordinated attributes and conditions.
From an urban heritage, but also a contemporary planning point of view, the town is determined and created by its architecture and urban forms. References Blau, E. Munich-London-New York: Prestel. Kropf, K. Wiley: New Jersey. Budapest: Corvina. Keywords: Fragments, reuse and recycling, remix, cancellations The current urban scenario is imaginable as a continuous construction site in which both the contemporaneity of the construction and the historical time of destruction coexist in a simultaneous and conflicting manner; the ruins of yesterday but mainly the debris of today are no longer exceptional episodes in the urban fabric but are now the recognizable and structuring features of the city: on one side there is a whole series of unfinished and abandoned fragments, that is the waste of the city that is built or tries to do so , while on the other hand there is the historical ruin of the city identified in archaeological sites, in the ruins of historical monuments or in the buildings of Late Modern Period.
This sort of operation, just like many other actions belonging to other cultural environments in which elements coming from different sources blend together, where the new coexists with the ancient, forms a kind of tie, a cultural glue, a virus, that informs and supports contemporary culture.
Il senso del tempo, Bollati Biringhieri, Torino. Navas E. The aesthetics of sampling, Springer, Wien. Dal Co F. Bocchi R. Cocco G. The research upon the aggregate and the design of basic buildings is conducted within a more extended and complex study on the typology and morphology of the cities of Aachen and Maastricht. At first, by analyzing the single dwelling parcel, the Frankenberger Viertel proves the idea of type which constitute its planning.
The critical consciousness intrinsic within the planning act do not allow to read the process which have brought to the development of the type, but is also a sign of a plethora of elements inherent to the dwelling concept which was used in the act of the urban and design plan. After the in-depth analysis on the singular row-houses, the second phase is the analysis of the aggregate.
References Ruhnau, P. Arnold, E. Note sulla formazione e trasformazione dei caratteri degli edifici, Adda, Bari.
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Curdes, G. Il mondo plastico murario in divenire, Franco Angeli, Milano. Malena, V. Cataldi, G. Keywords: Urban morphology, typological design, contemporary types Traditionally debates on urban morphology and typology rely on a value-oriented approach in which historical types are appreciated, while so-called modern types are criticized and other types with no definite root in history are neglected.
Contemporary situation of cities, with parameters like the diversity of types, rapid changes according to global dynamics of cities, the iconographic tendency in designing new projects, and functional requirements to design, for example, transportation structures, lead to fast changes which need a special notice through a morphologic and typological lens. This article, by the interpretive approach, reviews fundamental concepts of morphology and typology to find possibilities to make a place for non-historic types in morphological and typological debates.
In this regard Fundamental concepts of Quatremere and Laugier is reread Madrazo , methodological approaches of Muratorian Cataldi and Conzenian school Conzen is reviewed, dialogues on the need for considering contemporary types are analyzed Nasser , Scheer , the history of general formal changes of cities through modern and global period is narrated, and finally the functional abilities of some contemporary types are described.
As contemporary types have an ability to be a part of urban systems, and many requirements of systems are adapted to these types according to their repetition in codes and regulations, the article argues choosing timeless point of view to the notion of type, which can be found in fundamental concepts of morphology and typology, can give a place to contemporary types in morphological and typological debates.
References Argan, G. Ashraf, A. Maffei G. Choay, F. Chr, A. Nesbitt, K. Colquhoun, A. Conzen, M. Habibi, S. Kamrava, M. Katuzian, M. A Learning from the ancient city: Pompeii. The form of the city, the form of the block, the form of the house Federica Visconti1. Archaeology comments and describes the past, Architecture has its aim in the modification for the future. The second, with the title of a famous quotation by Bernardo di Chartres, conversely means that the past — the giant — is a heritage we can use to free ourselves from the contemporary condition, to rise from the ground and to be able, in this way, to look further: this is the idea of a progressive character of our discipline that advances basing on everything has already been acquired and has taken the character of permanence, in physical space but also in time.
The lesson of an archaeological city as Pompeii is so intended and the paper will investigates it through analytical categories related to the form — the urban morphology and the architectural typologies — and to the spatiality on the different but always connected scales: of the urban fabric, of the block, of the house. References Fiorelli, G. Fiorelli, G. Haverfield, F. Guzzo, P. Maiuri, A. Con pianta, 18 illustrazioni nel testo e fuori testo, Libreria dello Stato, Roma.
Visconti, F. Keywords: Nicosia, urban morphology, design process Current learning design processes in the Faculties of Architecture reflect two main troubles: the absence of the scale notion and the lack of contextualization. These two problems are in a mechanical way all around the world, since the digital era of design contributed for that. But this eventual negative vision of the new technologies can be reverted, since it comes from a reductive way of understanding its implementation.
Lack of direct contact with the reality is a direct consequence of the virtual context where pedagogies develop their practices. It seems that the site visit continues to be irreplaceable in this process. These visits, together with the readings of the old cartographies and aerial pictures, as well as their interpretations, are the basis of several pedagogical experiences around a complex city, like Nicosia Reading this city is a healthy practice where the students learn how important is the place and context to start their respective design processes.
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This practice starts with the first topographic maps of the island and the city of Nicosia Kithchener, The paper will deep on the pedagogic experiences about the walled city of Nicosia in several Mediterranean Universities. A comparative analysis of the several results is proposed, since the different origins of the students seem to be an important factor to determine strongly the final results. References Chaplin,S. Routledge Morris,R. Series: Architecture and Civil Engineering Vol. Valencia city -the third one in size in Spain, laying on the Mediterranean coast- offers an optimal case of historical urban patterns overlapping into its old town —Ciutat Vella, almost the whole city until the beginning of 20th century-.
Roman Valencia -Valentia- was founded as a settlement by the banks of river Turia, in an island in those times near the coast. After a short Visigothic re-foundation, the city was early conquered by Muslim invasion throughout Iberian Peninsula, growing in size by embracing the ancient city. With the re-conquest of Christians in the city reached its final size by the construction of Christian wall precinct in 15th century, and enlarging the existing Muslim city with new areas and void space to be covered. As a result, those three different circles can be red in the current city, as a successive addition of urban belts such as other cases in the Mediterranean scene.
Those historical urban periods are perfectly recognizable in Valencia, and a scheme of their shapes offers an optimal textbook case for other cities on the Mediterranean. In addition, further urban renewal interventions updated the city along 19th and 20th centuries. Two of them, the main interventions in a haussmannian style, were opened throughout the existing city in relationship with the historical parcels and those three historical patterns.
The last one, unfinished and rejected in , becomes a unique case of rationalist-expressionist both layout and collection of buildings. References Benevolo, L Cullen, Gordon El paisaje urbano. Llopis, A. La ciudad racionalista. Arquitectura Racionalista en Valencia, vol. Y Bergara, I. This involved the densification of peripheral parts of the historical city that mostly was characterized by religious buildings, vine yards, villas and gardens.
For example in the Rione Esquilino, the few existing residential buildings were aligned to roads established in the late XVI century by the pope Sixtus V. These roads were the basic framework for the expansion projects. Thus, in all the rioni, the influence of building type to urban pattern was secondary, as the relative position between preserved structures strongly influenced the various dimensions of blocks. Contrariwise, major influence on the urban form on a lower scale must be attributed to the configuration of the building type, which again is determined by construction techniques as well as the limits imposed to speculation by the building code.
They were stiffened by other few perpendicular walls. A description of constructive components is offered in relation to the social, political, economic and technological context. References Breymann G.
I Costruzioni in pietra e strutture murali. Canniggia Gianfranco, Permanenze e mutazioni nel tipo edilizio e nei tessuti di Roma Roma: Kappa, , pp. Cantalupi Antonio, Milano: Galli e Omodei, Caracciolo Alberto, Roma Capitale: dal risorgimento alla crisi dello stato liberale. Roma: Rinascita, , p. Manuale del recupero del Comune di Roma. Giovanetti, F. Evoluzione dei tipi costruttivi dei solai e delle volte nel corso del secolo XIX.
Casciato, S. Scavizzi A c. Particolari di costruzioni murali e finimenti di fabbricati: vol. Torino: G. Paravia, This analysis will focus on constructive and typological characters of the main historical residential buildings, which can be subdivided in two categories, located in two different area of the island upper and lower part. It is an aristocratic building that takes its characters entrance hall, decorated portal, vertical connection system from baroque noble palaces of Naples whose greatest architect was Ferdinando Sanfelice Finally, the paper will underline how the two typology are strictly connected to the social use, in particular to the persons which used them that influenced even the urban settlement of the island.
References A. Genesi e configurazioni del tessuto edilizio storico. Melucci, T. The modern transition of Roman Architecture. Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy teresa. The Roman Architecture between the two post war periods has some specific features that distinguish it from the other European Architectures. We are talking about not well discussed issues concerning some architecture works, sometimes left out, in the written architecture history of the 20th century. These buildings have been designed by some architect, but their architecture characteristics are extremely different.
Our projects would be unrealizable before the realization moment, they would be too old before being materialized, as each thought get old during its carrying out. References Accasto G. Clementi A. Micara L. Le forme architettoniche significano?. Passeri A. Piacentini M.
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Rossi, Ostilio P. Strappa G. Keywords: Tarragona, fragmented city, typo-morphological characters, spontaneous consciousness, critical consciousness The proposed subject is the result of the study realized by the Thesis Laboratory, coordinated by the Professor M. The study analyzes the urban structure of Tarragona, a city in Spain, and tries to explain the complex evolution of the urban fabric extra moenia and how its linked to the existent walled city. The first part, built from the XVII century next to the walls, is built above the Roman Tarraco whose doesnt survive evident traces in the actual structure, even though appears as a regular planning system that doesnt seem to coincide with the former.
This edification corresponds with a phase of an accentuated urbanization and, according to the historical documents, it also responds to a request of new urban residential fabric due to population increase. The new urban fabric is built next to the coast and gradually reaches the natural limit of the river. The global urban development follows different orientations, often depending on the previous lying and on the territorial itineraries considered matrices of the new urban layouts.
A first connection is realized between the upper and the lower part, which is actualized in the construction of the area between the current Rambla Vella and Rambla Nova. The orientation of the coast, instead, conditions the structure of the new district that connects the port to the built in the meantime consolidated. The most recent developments in the urban fabric, which concurr to define a strongly torn periphery and lacking qualified hierarchies, seem to be affected by the strong industrial development that, since the last century, has produced a broad commercial and tertiary specialization with choices on the port system and on the infrastructural one that mark, even today, often negatively, the organization of the Catalan city, generating a strong incoherence of the whole urban system.
References Bach i Busqueras, J. Maffei, G. De Ortueta, E.
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Urbanismo y arquitectura, Lunwerg Editores, Barcellona. Recasens J. Keywords: Tarragona, fragmented city, typo-morphological characters, spontaneous consciousness, critical consciousness. The proposed theme is the result of the research carried out with the activities of the Thesis Laboratory, coordinated by the Professor M.
The study deepens the urban structure of Tarragona, city of Spain, and tries to explain how to run over the ancient planned substratum in the current aggregative and building system. Remember that Tarragona, the first Roman colony outside of Italy as early as B. The survey, performed with the typical tools of typological analysis, involves the examination of the urban fabric settled on the Roman substratum of the imperial age and the reconstruction of the subsequent transformations caused by clogging processes and specialization of the types within the walls.
The collection of the cartography and the main historical-documentary sources, the results of the archaeological excavations and above all the study of the plans of the ground floors and the type-floors of a large part of the built, produced by the local administration, formed the necessary base to start the work presented here which proposes, as indicated, to elaborate a reconstructive hypothesis of the phases of formation of the urban fabric of the walled city, reconstructing the recent transformations and the hierarchies that have modified, over time, the organic relationships of the entire urban system.
The scalar analysis urban organism, urban fabric, building type will help to explain urban evolution, through the investigation of the characteristics of basic and specialized construction and their diachronic mutations from which it is possible, in many cases, to clarify the spontaneous phenomena that occurred to modify the orderly structure of a previous planning. References Alfody G. Cataldi G. Keywords: Hellenism; City; Fortified architecture; Hellenistic monarchies; Sicily; Agathokles The study of urban architecture in the Hellenistic age shows how the society of that time paid particular attention in realizing scenic spaces in which the peculiarities of every single building found their meaning.
Monumental complexes found out their true value in visibility and fortifications had a basic role in recalling an image of a city characterized by its walls and closed in its fortified perimeter. Between the end of the 4th and 3rd century, Hellenistic monarchies promoted fortified architectures with a prominent semantic value, in which high visibility, magnitude, and spatial organization played a key role.
References Beste, Mertens , Beste H. Roma, pp. Camp McK. Flensted-Jensen, T. Nielsen, L. Rubinstein eds. Chaniotis A. Consolo Langher S. Stato degli studi e prospettive di ricerca. Messina dicembre Messina, pp. Ducrey P. Eco U. La ricerca semiotica e il metodo strutturale, Milano settima ed. Karlsson L. Lippolis E. Le Bohec-Bouhet S. Aspects sociaux et politiques de la guerre aux Ve et IV e s. Marconi P. Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy susanna.
It is rooted in a balanced and sustainable relationship between the urban and natural environment, between the needs of present and future generations and the heritage of the past Starting from this reading, the contribution proposed here intends to investigate the cultural instance of conservation, enhancement and almost re-appropriation by local communities of small urban historical cores in abandonment, through three apparently very distant cases of study: Bombay Beach in Florida, Humberstone in Chile and Calcata in Italy.
Instead, these urban sites, united by the particular relationship with the geographical and natural context, arise in impervious areas with clear physical limits sea, desert and orography , isolated from the infrastructural network or uninhabited due to environmental disasters. In particular, the attention of the research focuses on the common choice of all three reported examples of a peculiar strategy of action for the revival and regeneration of these singular realities of settlement: that of the show.
You wonder, therefore, on the effectiveness that the event, thought as an extra-ordinary experience, can in a certain way restore life to these ghost cities, if not even lead to the permanence of living experience of the ordinary. Cities, in fact, as organisms in continuous metamorphosis, conceal an immense resilience in their ability to transform and adapt their structure and their image. References Abis, E. The Journal of Urbanism 27, vol. Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy cristian.
Keywords: Morphology, Rome, process, organism, reading Saverio Muratori in Studi per una operante storia urbana di Roma gives us the need for new critical-historical and critical-technical categories for defining the urban forms of historical fabrics that find a virtuous example in Rome.
The themes of the categories deduced concern the continuity of the relationship between the ancient city and the medieval city and the permeation of building types and their functional and structural features that allow a clear reading of the formative process. Through the reading of the phenomena of building transformation occurred on the and from ruins of the theater of Marcello in Rome, urban phenomena will be treated that allowed the persistence and evolution of the special organism.
The proposed research aims, through the study of the architecture deriving from an ancient substratum, to show the educational process of building organisms capable of adapting themselves to change and of physically transforming themselves within the productive cycles. References Lanciani R.
Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy farzaneh. The architecture and construction of a city in each culture are subject to the conditions it created for that culture. This culture is the result of human and natural geography. One of the most important aspects of culture and geography is the architecture and urbanization of homes and neighborhoods. The main principles of cities and the architecture of the metropolises of the Islamic world are the principles of introversion, concealment, and confidentiality.
This principle has foundations and wide results in culture and geography, and many of its theorists have considered it the most important principle of architecture and urban planning of the past. This culture exists in the old context of all cities in Iran. The visual confidentiality of these features is the overwhelming debate about it.
Nonetheless, in urban studies, the concepts of the realm of personal space have been investigated, rather than directly referring to confidentiality. Alongside these two concepts, which are primarily lenders to behavioral studies, there are other dual concepts such as confidentiality and the local community in urban studies.
One of the reasons for this study is the lack of direct studies on privacy and its relationship with the formation of private urban spaces defined as alley that named dead-end. The city of Shiraz is one of the ancient cities of Iran, which has a unique historical texture. By studying the structure of Iranian cities after Islam, it can be seen that the formation of the dead-ends in urban neighborhoods is subject to special cultural conditions. The dead-ends created in this city, which is one of its structural features, is the result of the cultural interaction of residents in a small urban neighborhood.
The purpose of this research is to investigate how dead-ends occur in urban neighborhoods. This research is descriptiveanalytic and has selected the historical context of Shiraz as a pilot. References Groat, Linda N. Tehran: Tehran university publication. Keywords: Documentation, typological analysis, urban structure, morphology, culture of vision The physical aspect of a city constitutes a fundamental element between the phenomena and the realities that make up its structure.
The awareness and knowledge of this aspect, in its historical and typological connotations, in real and virtual connections, certainly passes through historical knowledge and the critical contribution to the reading of the urban context. If we think of the historical city as a written and rewritten text, as a palimpsest, or a layered object over time, its drawing and its formal organization allow us to grasp signs and information that have determined its evolution and changes.
The analysis of these processes, with particular attention to the culture of vision, contributes to enrich and deepen the understanding of the present, through a continuous comparison between reconstructions of the past and various imaginaries of possible future arrangements. References De Carlo L. Rappresentazione, documentazione, interpretazione, comunicazione, Gangemi Editore, Roma Massaia A. Scarzella P.
Dalmasso F. Comoli Mandracci V. Railway buildings are emblematic elements of urban fabric and influence the evolution of the city and are influenced by the context. Built in the nineteenth century as buildings for transport, they represented the introduction of new architectural typology in established contexts and have become, in contemporary times, real urban places, new poles of aggregation and identification of a community, preserving their central role in cities and involving a new type of urban transformations.
The study of the relationship between railway stations and historical cities starts from the need to know the evolution of these buildings, to identify guidelines for contemporary intervention. Starting from the analysis of the railway-context relations in some historical cities, we proceeded to the graphic reconstruction of the buildings and the urban development phases, highlighting the continuity existing between historical routes, ancient urban gates to the city and position and conformation of the railway buildings compared to the urban fabric.
The analysis of these elements made it possible to identify guidelines for planning future interventions, to be adopted in stratified historical contexts, such as that of the city of Matera in Italy, the next European Capital of Culture for One of the main achievements is the graphic reconstruction of the initial stages of railway buildings, related to the urban plot, the representation of the various stages of development constitutes a testimony of buildings no longer existing and is aimed to the knowledge and dissemination of cultural heritage, as basis for contemporary interventions in stratified historical contexts.
Aguilar Civera, I. Las estaciones ferroviarias de Madrid: su arquitectura e incidencia en el desarrollo de la ciudad. Madrid: Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos de Madrid. Conte A. Paesaggio di patrimoni tra tradizione e innovazione pp. Roma, Italia: Gangemi Editore. Gangemi Ed. Progetti italiani per Matera. Concorso nazionale di idee per Piazza Matteotti.
Catalogo della mostra. Roma: Gangemi. Keywords: Urban fabric, boundary, diversity, urbanity At urban scale, boundary is generally synonym of rupture which is mostly perceived as negative character. However it is described through its positif sides in this paper. It is considered at different scales from lot scale to parcel system scale, and from a street level to street network level and to urban fabric scale.
The study shows how boundaries reinforces urban spaces hierarchy and preserves social and functional mix in the study case. Fabula et al. The findings are as follows : 1 boundary is an element that maintains district inhabitants, production activities and varities of tertiary activities; 2 At the level of the city, boundaries leads to the creation of new urban polarities that confere a polycentric character to the city. In conclusion boundary proves to be a key element for the urbanity in a city and it rises some questions about its planning in new urban fabrics.
References Caniggia, G. Translated by: Pierre Larochelle, France. Jacobs, J. Vintage, New York. Montgomery, J. Making a city: Urbanity, vitality and urban design. Urban Des. Fabula, Lajos Boros, D. University of Utrecht. Weck, S. Seeking Urbanity or Seeking Diversity? Middle-class family households in a mixed neighbourhood in Germany. Built Environ. Keywords: Etruscan urbanism, Kainua-Marzabotto, foundation rite, metrological analysis; orthogonal urban design. Closely connected to the sacred rules of the Etrusca Disciplina, the planning of urban space represents one of the most interesting aspects of the Etruscan culture.
These aspects can be observed in their complexity only in the city plan of Kainua-Marzabotto, an exceptionally well preserved colonial town re founded at the end of the sixth century BCE along one of the many Apennine pass between Tyrrhenian Etruria and the Po Valley. Through the presentation of new data deriving from metrological analysis recently conducted on the urban plan of the Late Archaic city of Marzabotto, this paper aims to examine the interaction between ritual practice and urban planning in order to reconstruct the original proportions of each element of the urban grid and the architectural landscape of the town, as well as define its borders that are currently not completely known.
The image of a new foundation settlement emerges that was planned through a careful survey of the land and characterized by an urban system designed on a geometric-proportional basis using a linear unit equal to the Attic foot of References Baronio P. Baronio P. Baronio, P. Casini S. Castagnoli F. Colonna G. Sassatelli and E. Govi a , Govi E. Santuari e istituzioni politiche, Bologna, Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy letizia. Keywords: city, type, prison Considering the continuous changes of which the urban organism is the protagonist, the article intends to analyze the history of an architectural type: the prison building.
From the typological analysis the aim is to understand how those buildings whose detention function has ceased to exist, are still able to participate in the processes of urban evolution. The type of prison begins his story by adapting himself to existing buildings already involved in the urban fabric, changing himself only subsequently in an independent physiognomy. These are mainly convents, as happened for example in Venice for the current prison house for women of Giudecca or the Regina Coeli Prison in Rome, grafted onto a seventeenth-century convent structure.
For example, the Murate complex in Florence is evidence of how the public institution was involved in urban processes and how it continues to be a structure capable of taking part in an active process of change. The urban scale is intercepted by the typological one and vice versa. The custodial type is used as a key to interpreting new urban facts, both in past and current urban processes. References Dickens, P. Dubbini, R. Scarcella, L. Evoluzione storica. Caratteristiche attuali. Norme, storia e architettura dei modelli penitenziari, Mursia, Milano. Vassella, L.
Criteri di progettazione per un nuovo modello di struttura penitenziaria, Franco Angeli, Milano. Anastasia, S. Architettura, urbanistica e politiche penitenziarie, Ediesse, Roma. The presence of the waterchannels and numerous mill reaches, is at the origin of the establishement of many mills that provide hydralic energy, origin of a proto-industry. Water is also present in the fountains that feed the city. These fountains are at the origin of an urban organization of squares and publics spaces.
The containement of the river allows the control of the the whims of the river, by the construction of dams, and the creation of hallways wich in the twentieth century will be replaced by urban highways. The waters have drawn the city from the earliest times.
In the middle ages are created neighborhoods that have not changed since the end of the end of the tenth century until the revolution, when the major works of dewatering of the arms of water, and rectifying the river were at the origin of a new urbanism on wich was added the twentieth cetury with its destructions. Embracing about perimeter blocks composed of residential buildings of varied size and architecture, it results from the development of two successive extension plans between and Consequently, a classification of five building types was drawn up, ranging from the first examples of residential construction corresponding to the s to the last experiences carried out since the s.
Azagra J. Valencia E d. Soria y Puig, A. Sancho A. Marzi, 10 — Roma, Italy daniele. Rome is a city extremely complex because of the millennial stratification and overlapping of historic buildings. A compact urban and sinuous fabric. However in some cases this property was ripped open by demolition, sometimes necessary, but often quite invasive.
The virtual reconstruction of the cleared areas is a topic of great relevance to the preservation and knowledge of cultural heritage. The detailed archival research, digitization and the meticulous virtual reconstruction make this research important from many points of view: knowledge, media, museum, but most of the historical memory recovery. The project presented here, still under development, born from overcoming these limitations through activities aimed at utilization of the potential of IT and digital way to develop new research directions.
Especially trying to achieve two specific objectives. First, the three-dimensional modeling of significant parts of the historic city, especially those portions of the city that were demolished in the demolition previous six centuries. Secondly the definition of digital urban museum tours, which are useful to understand the state of the places before the demolitions.
The Cadastre Pio-Gregorian, first general register of the Papal State on particle base, has been the main reference for the recomposition of the original urban fabric. References Vannelli V. Da Roma, Architettura. In Fori Imperiali, Milano Leone R. Iconografia delle demolizioni nelle raccolte del Museo di Roma, in Fori Imperiali , pp. Ercolino M. Il Campo Carleo al Foro Traiano: genesi, crescita e distruzione. Keywords: Physical integration, historical bazaar, Kerman Bazaar in historical Iranian city operated as an urban structure weaving the urban elements and residential neighborhoods in one hand, and in the other hand preserving its own existence and unity as an organism, growing and transforming.
This paper aims to investigate the physical integration of bazaar as an urban structure of historical Iranian city. The product of the paper is a conceptual framework proposing a set of urban form qualities associated with the physical integration of bazaar. Therefore qualitative content analysis was used to explore the basic and current literature of urban form related to integration, unity and organization, leading to a conceptual framework which is being tested in the context of the historical bazaar of Kerman city, one of the most significant and outstanding bazaars of its kind.
References Ardalan, N. Tavassoli, M. The settlement of modern Yerevan occurred in the 12thth centuries. Since that Yerevan went through many cycles of both structural and contextual transformations through its history. Foreign invasions for almost 3concequitive centuries and earthquakes erased most of the medieval heritage of the city and took the memories with them.
The most significant urban developments that shapes nowadays city took place at the beginning of the 20th century. As city is the materialistic embodiment of the traces of time, the article focuses on studies of its urban form, mostly its principal constituting element — the streets, to retrospectively reconstruct the development of the city. Based on comparative analysis of first accurate plans of the city overlapped with topographic map, which in case of Yerevan significantly influences the formation of urban tissue, article intends to shows the presence of the past tightly linked to urban structure as a part of nowadays consolidated homogenous city which otherwise have been though was gone.
References Dias Coelho, Carlos coord. Urban morphology and transformation the pattern of housing in the historical cities of Iran. Gramsci 53, , Rome, Italy ali. The study of urban morphology and architectural typology on different scales show that the formation of ancient cities in the Middle East has always been subject to various conditions, including political, social, economic, geographical and cultural conditions.
Cultural conditions are the most important and the first parameter in the formation of urban structure in Iranian cities. The city of Shiraz is one of the sample cities. The modern city structure in Shiraz is very different from the historical structure that continued to Qajar period that is the finalist historical period of Iranian urbanism.
In this paper, by analyzing different parts of the historical texture of Shiraz, the concept and dimensions of changing the pattern of housing based on urban morphology have been analyzed and analyzed. The results of this descriptive-analytic study show that the concept of housing in this city has been changed and the main factor of development has been derived from the inside.
Therefore, it can be argued that the core of the forces forming the Islamic cities, based on the concept of housing in the present age, has lost its meaning. References Farid, Y. Lynch, Q. Hekmat Nia, H. Shokouee, H. Shirley, P.